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  1. Your name on forum: @Capital Bra Your name on server: Capital Bra Number: 3 You will be able to come?: yes Do you know if you break the rules, you will be disqualified?: yes
  2. Volkswagen (German: [ˈfɔlksˌvaːɡn̩] (listen);[Note 1] shortened to VW [faʊˈveː] (listen)) is a German motor vehicle manufacturer headquartered in Wolfsburg, Lower Saxony, Germany. Founded in 1937 by the German Labour Front, known for their iconic Beetle, it is the flagship brand of the Volkswagen Group, the largest car maker by worldwide sales in 2016 and 2017.[2] The group's biggest market is in China, which delivers 40% of its sales and profits.[3][4] The German term Volk translates to "people", thus Volkswagen translates to "people's car". Volkswagen was established in 1937 by the German Labour Front (Deutsche Arbeitsfront) in Berlin.[5] In the early 1930s, cars were a luxury – most Germans could afford nothing more elaborate than a motorcycle and only one German out of 50 owned a car. Seeking a potential new market, some car makers began independent "people's car" projects – the Mercedes 170H, BMW 3/15, Adler AutoBahn, Steyr 55, and Hanomag 1.3L, among others. The growing trend was not nascent; Béla Barényi, a pioneering automotive engineer, is credited as already having conceived the basic design during the mid-1920s. Josef Ganz developed the Standard Superior (going as far as advertising it as the "German Volkswagen"). In Germany, the company Hanomag mass-produced the 2/10 PS "Kommissbrot", a small, cheap rear-engined car, from 1925 to 1928.[6] Also, in Czechoslovakia, the Hans Ledwinka's penned Tatra T77, a very po[CENSORED]r car amongst the German elite, was becoming smaller and more affordable at each revision. Ferdinand Porsche, a well-known designer for high-end vehicles and race cars, had been trying for years to get a manufacturer interested in a small car suitable for a family. He built a car named the "Volksauto" from the ground up in 1933, using many po[CENSORED]r ideas and several of his own, putting together a car with an air-cooled rear engine, torsion bar suspension, and a "beetle" shape, the front bonnet rounded for better aerodynamics (necessary as it had a small engine).[7] VW logo during the 1930s, initials surrounded by a stylised cogwheel and a spinning propeller that looked like a swastika[8] In 1934, with many of the above projects still in development or early stages of production, Adolf Hitler became involved, ordering the production of a basic vehicle capable of transporting two adults and three children at 100 km/h (62 mph). He wanted a car every German family would be able to afford.[7] The "People's Car" would be available through a savings plan at RM990 (US$396 in 1938)—about the price of a small motorcycle (the average income being around RM32 a week).[9][10] It soon became apparent that private industry could not turn out a car for only RM990. Thus, Hitler chose to sponsor an all-new, state-owned factory using Ferdinand Porsche's design (with some of Hitler's design suggestions, including an air-cooled engine so nothing could freeze). The intention was that German families could buy the car through a savings scheme ("Fünf Mark die Woche musst du sparen, willst du im eigenen Wagen fahren" – "Five Marks a week you must set aside, if in your own car you wish to ride"), which around 336,000 people eventually paid into.[11] However, the project was not commercially viable, and only government support was able to keep it afloat.[12][Note 2] Prototypes of the car called the "KdF-Wagen" (German: Kraft durch Freude – "Strength through Joy") appeared from 1938 onwards (the first cars had been produced in Stuttgart). The car already had its distinctive round shape and air-cooled, flat-four, rear-mounted engine. The VW car was just one of many KdF programs, which included things such as tours and outings. The prefix Volks— ("People's") was not just applied to cars, but also to other products in Germany; the "Volksempfänger" radio receiver for instance. On 28 May 1937, Gesellschaft zur Vorbereitung des Deutschen Volkswagens mbH ("Company for the Preparation of the German Volkswagen Ltd."), or Gezuvor[13] for short, was established by the Deutsche Arbeitsfront in Berlin. More than a year later, on 16 September 1938, it was renamed to Volkswagenwerk GmbH.[14][15] VW Type 82E Erwin Komenda, the longstanding Auto Union chief designer, part of Ferdinand Porsche's hand-picked team,[7] developed the car body of the prototype, which was recognisably the Beetle known today. It was one of the first cars designed with the aid of a wind tunnel—a method used for German aircraft design since the early 1920s. The car designs were put through rigorous tests and achieved a record-breaking million miles of testing before being deemed finished. The construction of the new factory started in May 1938 in the new town of "Stadt des KdF-Wagens" (renamed Wolfsburg after the war), which had been purpose-built for the factory workers.[14] This factory had only produced a handful of cars by the time war started in 1939. None were actually delivered to any holder of the completed saving stamp books, though one Type 1 Cabriolet was presented to Hitler on 20 April 1944 (his 55th birthday).[14] 1939–1944: Wartime production and concentration camp labour[edit] War changed production to military vehicles—the Type 82 Kübelwagen ("Bucket car") utility vehicle (VW's most common wartime model), and the amphibious Schwimmwagen—manufactured for German forces. One of the first foreigners to drive a Volkswagen was the American war correspondent Ernie Pyle, who had the use of a captured Volkswagen for a few days after the Allied victory in Tunisia in May 1943.[16] As was common with much of the production in Nazi Germany during the war, slave labour was utilised in the Volkswagen plant, e.g. from Arbeitsdorf concentration camp. The company would admit in 1998 that it used 15,000 slaves during the war effort. German historians estimated that 80% of Volkswagen's wartime workforce was slave labour.[17] Many of the slaves were reported to have been supplied from the concentration camps upon request from plant managers. A lawsuit was filed in 1998 by survivors for restitution for the forced labour.[18] Volkswagen would set up a voluntary restitution fund.[19] 1945–1948: British Army intervention[edit] Volkswagen industrial plant in Wolfsburg, pictured in 2006 In April 1945, KdF-Stadt and its heavily bombed factory were captured by the United States armed forces and subsequently handed over to the British, within whose occupation zone the town and factory fell. The factory was placed under the control of British Army officer Major Ivan Hirst, REME, a civilian Military Governor with the occupying forces. At first, one plan was to use it for military vehicle maintenance, and possibly dismantle and ship it to Britain. Since it had been used for military production, (though not of KdF-Wagens) and had been in Hirst's words, a "political animal" rather than a commercial enterprise[citation needed] – technically making it liable for destruction under the terms of the Potsdam Agreement – the equipment could have been salvaged as war reparations.[citation needed] Allied dismantling policy changed in late 1946 to mid-1947, though heavy industry continued to be dismantled until 1951.[citation needed] One of the factory's wartime 'KdF-Wagen' cars had been taken to the factory for repairs and abandoned there. Hirst had it repainted green and demonstrated it to British Army headquarters. Short of light transport, in September 1945 the British Army was persuaded to place a vital order for 20,000 cars. However, production facilities had been massively disrupted, there was a refugee crisis at and around the factory, and some parts (such as carburettors) were unavailable. Hirst and his German assistant Heinrich Nordhoff (who went on to run the Wolfsburg facility after the military government ended in 1949) helped to stabilise the acute social situation while simultaneously re-establishing production. Hirst, for example, used his engineering experience to arrange the manufacture of carburettors, the original producers being effectively 'lost' in the Soviet zone.[20] The first few hundred cars went to personnel from the occupying forces, and to the German Post Office. Some British Service personnel were allowed to take their Beetles back to the United Kingdom when they were demobilised.[21][better source needed] In 1986, Hirst said that factory workers were, after many years of Nazi conditioning, initially reluctant to follow his orders; to counter this, he had his military uniform brought back from Britain and wore it in the factory, after which he reported having no problems even though he was no longer a soldier at the time but a civilian member of the military government.[citation needed] The post-war industrial plans for Germany set out rules that governed which industries Germany was allowed to retain. These rules set German car production at a maximum of 10% of 1936 car production.[22] By 1946, the factory produced 1,000 cars a month even though it was still in disrepair. Owing to roof and window damage, production had to stop when it rained, and the company had to barter new vehicles for steel for production.[23] The car and its town changed their Second World War-era names to "Volkswagen" and "Wolfsburg" respectively, and production increased. It was still unclear what was to become of the factory. It was offered to representatives from the American, Australian, British, and French motor industries who all rejected it. After an inspection of the plant, Sir William Rootes, head of the British Rootes Group, told Hirst the project would fail within two years, and that the car " quite unattractive to the average motorcar buyer, is too ugly and too noisy ... If you think you're going to build cars in this place, you're a bloody fool, young man."[citation needed] The official report said: "To build the car commercially would be a completely uneconomic enterprise."[24] Ford representatives were equally critical. In March 1948, the British offered the Volkswagen company to Ford, free of charge. Henry Ford II, the son of Edsel Ford, traveled to West Germany for discussions. Heinz Nordhoff was also present, as well as Ernest Breech, chairman of the board for Ford. Henry Ford II looked to Breech for his opinion, and Breech said, "Mr. Ford, I don't think what we're being offered here is worth a damn!"[25] Ford passed on the offer, leaving Volkswagen to rebuild itself under Nordhoff's leadership.[citation needed]
  3. Beauty and the Beast is a 1991 American animated musical romantic fantasy film produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation and released by Walt Disney Pictures. The 30th Disney animated feature film and the third released during the Disney Renaissance period, it is based on the 1756 fairy tale of the same name by Jeanne-Marie Leprince de Beaumont (who was only credited in the French dub),[6] while also containing ideas from the 1946 French film of the same name directed by Jean Cocteau.[7] The film was directed by Gary Trousdale and Kirk Wise (in their feature directorial debuts) and produced by Don Hahn, from a screenplay by Linda Woolverton. Beauty and the Beast focuses on the relationship between the Beast (voice of Robby Benson),[8] a prince who is magically transformed into a monster and his servants into household objects as punishment for his arrogance, and Belle (voice of Paige O'Hara),[8] a young woman whom he imprisons in his castle. To break the curse, Beast must learn to love Belle and earn her love in return before the last petal falls from an enchanted rose or else the Beast will remain a monster forever. The film also features the voices of Richard White, Jerry Orbach, David Ogden Stiers, and Angela Lansbury.[8] Walt Disney first attempted to adapt Beauty and the Beast into an animated film during the 1930s and 1950s, but was unsuccessful. Following the success of The Little Mermaid (1989), Walt Disney Pictures decided to adapt the fairy tale, which Richard Purdum originally conceived as a non-musical. Disney chairman Jeffrey Katzenberg eventually dismissed Purdum's idea and ordered that the film be a musical similar to The Little Mermaid instead.[8] Lyricist Howard Ashman and composer Alan Menken wrote the film's songs. Ashman, who additionally served as the film's executive producer, died of AIDS-related complications six months before the film's release, and the film is thus dedicated to his memory. Beauty and the Beast premiered as an unfinished film at the New York Film Festival on September 29, 1991, followed by its theatrical release as a completed film at the El Capitan Theatre on November 13. The film grossed $331 million at the box office worldwide on a $25 million budget and received widespread critical acclaim for its romantic narrative, animation (particularly the ballroom scene), characters and musical numbers. Beauty and the Beast won the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy, the first animated film to ever win that category. It also became the first animated film to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture at the 64th Academy Awards, where it won the Academy Award for Best Original Score and Best Original Song for its title song and received additional nominations for Best Original Song and Best Sound. In April 1994, Beauty and the Beast became Disney's first animated film to be adapted into a Broadway musical, which ran until 2007. An IMAX version of the film was released in 2002, and included "Human Again", a new five-minute musical sequence that had been cut from the film prior to its release, but was included in the 1994 musical. That same year, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress for being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".[9][10] After the success of the 3D re-release of The Lion King, the film was reissued in 3D in 2012.[11] A live-action adaptation of the film directed by Bill Condon was released on March 17, 2017.
  4. The Lion King is a 1994 American animated musical drama film[3] produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation and released by Walt Disney Pictures. It is the 32nd Disney animated feature film and the fifth animated film produced during a period known as the Disney Renaissance. The Lion King was directed by Roger Allers and Rob Minkoff (in their feature directorial debuts) and produced by Don Hahn, from a screenplay by Irene Mecchi, Jonathan Roberts, and Linda Woolverton. Its original songs were written by composer Elton John and lyricist Tim Rice, with a score by Hans Zimmer. The film features an ensemble voice cast that includes Matthew Broderick, James Earl Jones, Jeremy Irons, Jonathan Taylor Thomas, Moira Kelly, Nathan Lane, Ernie Sabella, Rowan Atkinson, Robert Guillaume, Madge Sinclair (in her last film role), Whoopi Goldberg, Cheech Marin, and Jim Cummings. The story takes place in a kingdom of lions in Africa and was influenced by the Biblical stories of Joseph and Moses, and William Shakespeare's Hamlet. The Lion King tells the story of Simba (Swahili for lion), a young lion who is to succeed his father, Mufasa, as King of the Pride Lands; however, after Simba's paternal uncle Scar murders Mufasa to seize the throne, Simba is mani[CENSORED]ted into thinking he was responsible and flees into exile. After growing up in the company of the carefree outcasts Timon and Pumbaa, Simba receives valuable perspective from his childhood friend, Nala, and his shaman, Rafiki, before returning to challenge Scar to end his tyranny and take his place in the Circle of Life as the rightful King. Development of The Lion King began in 1988 during a meeting between Jeffrey Katzenberg, Roy E. Disney, and Peter Schneider while promoting Oliver & Company in Europe. Thomas M. Disch wrote a film treatment, and Woolverton developed the first scripts, while George Scribner was signed on as director, being later joined by Allers. Production began in 1991 concurrently with Pocahontas, which wound up attracting many of Disney's top animators. Some time after the staff traveled to Hell's Gate National Park in Kenya to research the film's setting and animals, Scribner left production, disagreeing with the decision to turn the film into a musical, and was replaced by Minkoff. When Hahn joined the project, he was dissatisfied with the script and the story was promptly rewritten. Nearly 20 minutes of animation sequences were produced at the Disney-MGM Studios theme park in Florida. Computer animation was also used in several scenes, most notably in the wildebeest stampede sequence. The Lion King was released on June 15, 1994, to critical acclaim, praising the film for its music, story, themes, and animation. With an initial worldwide gross of $763 million, it finished its theatrical run as the highest-grossing film of 1994. It also held the title of the highest-grossing animated film, until it was overtaken by Finding Nemo. It is still the highest-grossing traditionally animated film of all time, as well as the best-selling film on home video, having sold over 55 million copies worldwide. On release, the film drew some controversy in Japan for its similarities to Osamu Tezuka's 1960s anime series Kimba the White Lion. The Lion King garnered two Academy Awards for its achievement in music and the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy. The film has led to many derived works, such as a Broadway adaptation in 1997; two direct-to-video follow-ups—the sequel, The Lion King II: Simba's Pride (1998), and the prequel/parallel, The Lion King 1½ (2004); two television series, Timon and Pumbaa and The Lion Guard; a 3D re-release in 2011; and a photorealistic remake in 2019, which also became the highest-grossing animated film at the time of its release. In 2016, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".[4] The Lion King is the first Disney film to have been dubbed in Zulu,[5] and the only African language aside from Arabic to have been used for a feature-length Disney dub.[6]
  5. You Nick Ts3: Capital Bra Number of users recruited: 4 member Proof (Photo):
  6. Capital Bra

    [Disney] Goofy

    Goofy is a cartoon character created by The Walt Disney Company. Goofy is a tall, anthropomorphic dog[3] who typically wears a turtle neck and vest, with pants, shoes, white gloves, and a tall hat originally designed as a rumpled fedora. Goofy is a close friend of Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck. He is normally characterized as hopelessly clumsy and dim-witted, yet this interpretation is not always definitive; occasionally Goofy is shown as intuitive and clever, albeit in his own unique, eccentric way. Goofy debuted in animated cartoons, starting in 1932 with Mickey's Revue as Dippy Dawg, who is older than Goofy would come to be. Later the same year, he was re-imagined as a younger character, now called Goofy, in the short The Whoopee Party. During the 1930s, he was used extensively as part of a comedy trio with Mickey and Donald. Starting in 1939, Goofy was given his own series of shorts that were po[CENSORED]r in the 1940s and early 1950s. Two Goofy shorts were nominated for an Oscar: How to Play Football (1944) and Aquamania (1961). He also co-starred in a short series with Donald, including Polar Trappers (1938), where they first appeared without Mickey Mouse. Three more Goofy shorts were produced in the 1960s after which Goofy was only seen in television and Disney comics. He returned to theatrical animation in 1983 with Mickey's Christmas Carol. His most recent theatrical appearance was How to Hook Up Your Home Theater in 2007. Goofy has also been featured in television, most extensively in Goof Troop (1992), House of Mouse (2001–2003), Mickey Mouse Clubhouse (2006–2016), Mickey Mouse (2013–2019), and Mickey and the Roadster Racers (2017–present). Originally known as Dippy Dawg, the character is more commonly known simply as "Goofy", a name used in his short film series. In his 1950s cartoons, he usually played a character called George G. Geef. Sources from the Goof Troop continuity give the character's full name as G. G. "Goofy" Goof,[4][5] likely in reference to the 1950s name. In many other sources, both animated and comics, the surname Goof continues to be used. In other 2000s-era comics, the character's full name has occasionally been given as Goofus D. Dawg. After the 1965 educational film Goofy's Freeway Troubles, Goofy was mostly retired except for cameos because of the cartoons' fading po[CENSORED]rity and the death of voice actor Pinto Colvig. Goofy had an act in the 1969 tour show Disney on Parade with costar Herbie the Love Bug. His profile began to rise again after his appearance in Mickey's Christmas Carol as the ghost of Jacob Marley. After that, he appeared in Sport Goofy in Soccermania, a 1987 television special. He makes a brief appearance in Disney/Amblin's Academy Award-winning hit Who Framed Roger Rabbit, in which the titular Roger Rabbit says of Goofy: "Nobody takes a wallop like Goofy! What timing! What finesse! What a genius!" He later appears at the end of the film. Goofy (right) with his son Max (left) in A Goofy Movie (1995) In the 1990s, Goofy got his own TV series called Goof Troop. In the show, Goofy lives with his son Max and his cat Waffles, and they live next door to Pete and his family. Goof Troop eventually led to Goofy and Max starring in their own movies: A Goofy Movie (in 1995) and An Extremely Goofy Movie (in 2000); as well as starring in their own segments of Mickey's Once Upon a Christmas (in 1999) and Mickey's Twice Upon a Christmas (in 2004). While Goofy is clearly depicted as a single custodial parent in all of these appearances, by the end of An Extremely Goofy Movie he begins a romance with the character Sylvia Marpole, Max being grown and in college by this point. In one episode of Bonkers, Goofy has an off-screen cameo whose distinctive laugh is "stolen" by a disgruntled toon. In another episode, both he and Pete cameo as actors who film cartoons at Wackytoon Studios. And in a third episode, Goofy cameos as part of a group of civilians held hostage in a bank robbery. Goofy returned to his traditional personality in Mickey Mouse Works and appeared as a head waiter in House of Mouse (2001 to 2004). Goofy's son Max also appeared in House of Mouse as the nightclub's valet, so that Goofy juggled not only his conventional antics but also the father-role displayed in Goof Troop and its aforementioned related media. In both Mickey Mouse Works and House of Mouse, Goofy also seemed to have a crush on Clarabelle Cow, as he asks her on a date in the House of Mouse episode "Super Goof" and is stalked by the bovine in the Mickey Mouse Works cartoon "How To Be a Spy". Though Clarabelle was noted as Horace Horsecollar's fiancé in early decades, comics from the 1960s and 1970s and in later cartoons like the aforementioned House of Mouse and Mickey Mouse Works, as well as Mickey, Donald, Goofy: The Three Musketeers, imply some mutual affections between Goofy and Clarabelle; perhaps as an attempt for Disney to give Goofy a more mainstream girlfriend to match his two male co-stars. On Disney's Toontown Online, an interactive website for kids, Goofy previously ran his own neighborhood called Goofy Speedway until the close of Toontown. Goofy Speedway was a place where players could race cars and enter the Grand Prix. Tickets were exclusively spent on everything there, instead of the usual jellybean currency. The Grand Prix only came on "Grand Prix Monday" and "Silly Saturday". Goofy's Gag Shop was also found in almost every part of Toontown' except Cog HQs, Goofy Speedway, or Chip & Dale's Acorn Acres. At Goofy's Gag Shop, Toons could buy gags. Goofy also appears in the children's television series, Mickey Mouse Clubhouse, with his trademark attire and personality. Goofy appeared in The Lion King 1½. Goofy starred in a new theatrical cartoon short called How to Hook Up Your Home Theater, that premiered at the Ottawa International Animation Festival. The short received a positive review from animation historian Jerry Beck[18] and then had a wide release on December 21, 2007, in front of National Treasure: Book of Secrets and has aired on several occasions on the Disney Channel. In 2011, Goofy appeared in a promotional webtoon advertising Disney Cruise Line.[19] He is also a main character on Mickey and the Roadster Racers. He has also appeared in the third season of the 2017 DuckTales TV series; based on his Goof Troop incarnation.[20] Guest starring in the episode, "Quack Pack", Goofy appears as the Duck family's wacky neighbor after Donald accidentally wished them into a '90s sitcom. Donald hires him to be the photographer for a family photo, but after the Ducks realize what Donald did, Goofy helps him understand that "normal" does not necessarily mean the same thing between families; using the relationship he has with his son Max as an example.[21] In 2021, it was announced that Goofy would star in a new series of "How to..." shorts entitled How to Stay at Home in a reflection of the COVID-19 pandemic. Animator Eric Goldberg (the Genie from Aladdin) will serve as director of the shorts as well as supervising animator on one of them, while Mark Henn (Belle and Princess Jasmine) and Randy Haycock (Naveen in The Princess and the Frog) will serve as supervising animators for other shorts. Once again, Farmer will voice the Goof with Corey Burton narrating. Among the announced shorts include "How to Wear a Mask", "Learning to Cook", and "Binge Watching". The shorts were released on Disney+ on August 11, 2021.[22]
  7. David Luiz Moreira Marinho (born 22 April 1987) is a Brazilian professional footballer who plays for Flamengo. Primarily a centre back, he can also be deployed as a defensive midfielder.[4][5] After starting out at Vitoria, David Luiz moved to Benfica, remaining with the club for five seasons (three complete). He joined Chelsea in January 2011, winning the UEFA Champions League during the 2011–12 season. In the following season he won the UEFA Europa League. In June 2014, he transferred to Paris Saint-Germain for a fee of £50 million, at that time a world record transfer for a defender,[6][7][8] and won all four domestic competitions over his two seasons in French football. He returned to Chelsea in August 2016 in a £30 million transfer deal. He transferred to local rivals Arsenal in 2019 before returning to his home country to play for Flamengo in 2021. David Luiz made his full international debut for Brazil in 2010 and has since earned over 50 caps for his country. He was a member of the Brazilian teams which won the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup and reached the semi-finals of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, and has also represented his nation in two editions of the Copa América. Vitória[edit] Born in Diadema, São Paulo, to Ladislao and Regina Marinho, David Luiz arrived at Salvador-based club Vitória after being released by São Paulo,[9] and started playing as a defensive midfielder, almost leaving the club for his poor performances in that position.[10] However, he was soon moved to central defender and adapted well.[11] David Luiz made his debut for Vitória in 2006, excelling in a 2–2 draw against Santa Cruz in that season's Copa do Brasil.[11] At the worst situation of its history, in the third division, the club eventually promoted to the second level after finishing in second position, with the player appearing in eight of the club's last decisive nine games,[12] scoring his only league goal on 3 September 2006 in a 2–0 home win against Clube Atlético do Porto.[13] Benfica[edit] On 30 January 2007, David Luiz joined Portuguese club Benfica as a replacement for Tottenham Hotspur-bound Ricardo Rocha, on loan.[14] He made a somewhat tumultuous debut for the club in a UEFA Cup match against Paris Saint-Germain at the Parc des Princes, partnering compatriot Anderson in the centre of defence, replacing the injured Luisão. Benfica lost the match 2–1 but progressed to the next round after winning 4–3 on aggregate. On 12 March 2007, David Luiz played his first league match for Benfica, against União de Leiria.[15] At the end of the season, following ten league appearances, he joined permanently for a €1.5 million transfer fee[16] and signed a five-year contract with the club.[17] Before the ensuing campaign, he scored his first goal for the club in the Guadiana Trophy friendly tournament, against Sporting CP. However, David Luiz only managed eight appearances in the league due to injury as Benfica finished fourth. On 11 January 2009, David Luiz scored his first goal for Benfica, the match's only goal in a home success against Braga. He played most of the campaign as a left back, at the expense of Portuguese international Jorge Ribeiro. However, it was in the 2009–10 season, when new manager Jorge Jesus arrived to Benfica, that David Luiz became a club symbol and vice-captain. He was ever-present, appearing in 49 matches (three goals, 4,206 minutes), as Benfica won the league after a five-year wait. In the season's Taça da Liga, in a 1–4 away win against Sporting CP, he opened the score in the eighth minute, with Benfica also eventually winning the competition. David Luiz won the Portuguese Liga Player of the Year that same season with 38% of the vote while the runner-up, his teammate Ángel Di María, received 8%.[16] On 30 September 2009, Benfica sold 25% of David Luiz's economic rights on any future transfer to a third-party owner, Benfica Stars Fund, along with other teammates. He was valued at €18 million, with the fund paying €4.5 million;[18] his contract was also renewed in October with a release clause of €50 million.[19] Chelsea[edit] David Luiz playing for Chelsea in 2011 On 31 January 2011, David Luiz completed a move to Chelsea for a €25 million transfer fee and subsequently signed a five-and-a-half-year contract. As part of the deal, Chelsea midfielder Nemanja Matić joined Benfica at the end of the season after his transfer spell at Dutch club Vitesse.[20][21][22][23] David Luiz made his Premier League debut on 6 February, replacing José Bosingwa in a 0–1 home loss against Liverpool.[24] Eight days later in a 0–0 draw against Fulham at Craven Cottage, he made his first start for Chelsea. Instantly becoming a cult hero amongst the Chelsea fans, David Luiz was awarded the Barclays Man of the Match award for his performance, despite giving away a penalty in the 93rd minute of the match, which was saved by Petr Čech.[25] On 1 March, David Luiz scored his first goal for Chelsea to help the Blues come from behind to win 2–1 against Manchester United at Stamford Bridge.[26] On 20 March, he headed in his second goal for the Blues in a 2–0 home win over Manchester City, and again receiving the man of the match award, as well as the Premier League Player of the Month for March.[27][28] David Luiz missed the first three matches of 2011–12 season due to a knee injury.[29] He made his return to the first team on 13 September in a UEFA Champions League group stage match against Bayer Leverkusen in which he scored from 15 yards to break the deadlock in an eventual 2–0 home win.[30] In his second match, a League Cup third round tie against Fulham, he scored his penalty shoot-out attempt in a 4–3 win (0–0 after 120 minutes).[31] David Luiz with a T-shirt saying "Deus é fiel" ("God is faithful") after winning the Champions League On 5 February 2012, in a league home fixture against Manchester United, David Luiz put Chelsea ahead 3–0 in the 50th minute after his header was deflected by Rio Ferdinand, following a Juan Mata free kick. The match ended with a 3–3 draw.[32] On 25 February, through a curled shot, he opened the score against Bolton Wanderers in an eventual 3–0 at home.[33] On 14 March, Chelsea faced Napoli in the Champions League's round of 16, following a 3–1 loss at the Stadio San Paolo in Naples.[34] David Luiz made a stunning performance to help his team win the tie with a 4–1 extra-time win, being subsequently chosen by UEFA as the man of the match,[35] an accolade he also received in the first leg of the quarter-finals against former team Benfica in a 0–1 away win. However, after leaving the pitch in the FA Cup semi-final against rivals Tottenham with a muscular injury,[36] it was announced that he would miss both of the Champions League semi-finals encounters against Barcelona and the domestic cup final. He played, however, in the Champions League final – John Terry was also suspended for the match[37] – David Luiz appeared, and started for Chelsea, playing the full 120 minutes, along with converting his penalty shootout attempt as the Blues won the shootout 4–3.[38] On 22 September 2012, David Luiz signed a new five-year contract with Chelsea.[39] He started the new season again as a regular alongside either Gary Cahill or Terry, and scored his first goal from a free-kick against Nordsjælland in a 0–4 away win in the campaign's Champions League.[40] In the Club World Cup in 2012, in which Chelsea lost in the final to Corinthians, he was chosen the second best player of the tournament, receiving the Silver Ball for his performances, one of which was as a defensive midfielder. He played in that position in an 8–0 home thrashing of Aston Villa the following week, being chosen man of the Match and netting the second from a free-kick.[41][42] On 17 April 2013, David Luiz scored during a 3–0 West London derby victory against Fulham. He also scored in both legs of the Europa League semi-finals against Basel; the first was a last minute, low free-kick curled around the wall and into the goalkeeper's bottom left-hand corner to secure a dramatic 2–1 away win, giving Chelsea an advantage going into the second leg at Stamford Bridge.[43][44] David Luiz was widely criticised for a controversial incident during Chelsea's 0–1 away win over Manchester United at Old Trafford on 5 May. After he elbowed opponent Rafael, the United defender kicked out at him and was sent off. David Luiz, however, was seen smiling while lying on the ground before writhing around in mock agony.[45][46] David Luiz defended himself, saying he was smiling at the Manchester United fans who could be seen screaming insults and laughing at him.[47]
  8. Capital Bra

    [Terror] Dracula

    Dracula is a novel by Bram Stoker, published in 1897. As an epistolary novel, the narrative is related through letters, diary entries, and newspaper articles. It has no single protagonist, but opens with solicitor Jonathan Harker taking a business trip to stay at the castle of a Transylvanian noble, Count Dracula. Harker escapes the castle after discovering that Dracula is a vampire, and the Count moves to England and plagues the seaside town of Whitby. A small group, led by Abraham Van Helsing, hunt Dracula and, in the end, kill him. Dracula was mostly written in the 1890s. Stoker produced over a hundred pages of notes for the novel, drawing extensively from Transylvanian folklore and history. Some scholars have suggested that the character of Dracula was inspired by historical figures like the Wallachian prince Vlad the Impaler or the countess Elizabeth Báthory, but there is widespread disagreement. Stoker's notes mention neither figure. He found the name Dracula in Whitby's public library while holidaying there, picking it because he thought it meant devil in Romanian. Following its publication, Dracula was positively received by reviewers who pointed to its effective use of horror. In contrast, reviewers who wrote negatively of the novel regarded it as excessively frightening. Comparisons to other works of Gothic fiction were common, including its structural similarity to Wilkie Collins' The Woman in White (1859). In the past century, Dracula has been situated as a piece of Gothic fiction. Modern scholars explore the novel within its historical context—the Victorian era—and discuss its depiction of gender roles, sexuality, and race. Dracula is one of the most famous pieces of English literature. Many of the book's characters have entered po[CENSORED]r culture as archetypal versions of their characters; for example, Count Dracula as the quintessential vampire, and Abraham Van Helsing as an iconic vampire hunter. The novel, which is in the public domain, has been adapted for film over 30 times, and its characters have made numerous appearances in virtually all media.
  9. Donald Duck (or simply referred to as “The Duck”[14]) is an animated character created by Walt Disney as a foil to Mickey Mouse.[15] Making his screen debut in The Wise Little Hen on June 9, 1934, Donald is characterized as a pompous, showboating duck wearing a sailor suit, cap and a bow tie. Along with his semi-unintelligible voice (as famously created by his original voice actor, Clarence "Ducky" Nash), Donald’s most dominant trait is his fiery temper, which is predominantly expressed through explosive tantrums and fits of quacking and squawking. Much of Donald’s anger stems from his exceptionally bad luck, though his misfortunes are often the karmic result of his own arrogance and greed. Donald garnered acclaim as early as his second appearance, Orphan's Benefit, and quickly became a mainstay in Disney’s short films thereafter. His foibles endeared him to audiences, who found the duck's attitude and struggles to be both relatable and entertaining.[16] Animators and artists were also fond of Donald Duck's stories, as the character was allowed to exhibit more negative traits that could not be bestowed upon Mickey or the happy-go-lucky Goofy.[17] Beginning with 1937’s Don Donald, Donald earned his own series of cartoons, which would introduce such recurring characters as his girlfriend Daisy Duck, and his nephews Huey, Dewey, and Louie. Having starred in over 190 films, Donald has appeared in more theatrical films than any other Disney character. Several of his cartoons were honored by the Academy Awards, while other notable accolades include a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame and cemented footprints at the Chinese Theatre. Part of Donald's widespread po[CENSORED]rity can be attributed to his long-running comic book series under the supervision of such renowned artists as Ted Osborne, Al Taliaferro, Carl Barks, and Don Rosa. These stories depict Donald as living in the city of Duckburg, and have been enjoyed by generations of readers on a global scale. Donald Fauntleroy Duck[4] is a cartoon character created by The Walt Disney Company. Donald is an anthropomorphic white duck with a yellow-orange bill, legs, and feet. He typically wears a sailor shirt and cap with a bow tie. Donald is known for his semi-intelligible speech and his mischievous, temperamental, and pompous personality. Along with his friend Mickey Mouse, Donald was included in TV Guide's list of the 50 greatest cartoon characters of all time in 2002,[5] and has earned a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. He has appeared in more films than any other Disney character,[6] and is the most published comic book character in the world outside of the superhero genre.[7] Donald Duck appeared in comedic roles in animated cartoons. Donald's first theatrical appearance was in The Wise Little Hen (1934), but it was his second appearance in Orphan's Benefit that same year that introduced him as a temperamental comic foil to Mickey Mouse.[8] Throughout the next two decades, Donald appeared in over 150 theatrical films, several of which were recognized at the Academy Awards. In the 1930s, he typically appeared as part of a comic trio with Mickey and Goofy and was given his own film series starting with Don Donald (1937). These films introduced Donald's love interest and permanent girlfriend Daisy Duck and often included his three nephews Huey, Dewey, and Louie. After the film Chips Ahoy (1956), Donald appeared primarily in educational films before eventually returning to theatrical animation in Mickey's Christmas Carol (1983). His last appearance in a theatrical film was in Fantasia 2000 (1999). However, since then Donald has appeared in direct-to-video features such as Mickey, Donald, Goofy: The Three Musketeers (2004), television series such as Mickey Mouse Clubhouse (2006–2016), and video games such as QuackShot (1991). In addition to animation, Donald is well-known worldwide for his appearances in comics. Donald was most famously drawn by Al Taliaferro, Carl Barks, and Don Rosa. Barks, in particular, is credited for greatly expanding the "Donald Duck universe", the world in which Donald lives, and creating many additional characters such as Donald's rich uncle Scrooge McDuck. Donald has been a po[CENSORED]r character in Europe, particularly in Nordic countries where his weekly magazine Donald Duck & Co [no] was the comics publication with the highest circulation from the 1950s to 2009. In Italy, Donald is a major character in many comics, including a juvenile version named Paperino Paperotto, and a superhero alter ego known as Paperinik (Duck Avenger in the US and Superduck in the UK).
  10. The dog or domestic dog (Canis familiaris[4][5] or Canis lupus familiaris[5]) is a domesticated descendant of the wolf which is characterized by an upturning tail. The dog derived from an ancient, extinct wolf,[6][7] and the modern grey wolf is the dog's nearest living relative.[8] The dog was the first species to be domesticated,[9][8] by hunter–gatherers over 15,000 years ago,[7] before the development of agriculture.[1] Due to their long association with humans, dogs have expanded to a large number of domestic individuals[10] and gained the ability to thrive on a starch-rich diet that would be inadequate for other canids.[11] Over the millennia, dogs became uniquely adapted to human behavior, and the human-canine bond has been a topic of frequent study.[12] The dog has been selectively bred over millennia for various behaviors, sensory capabilities, and physical attributes.[13] Dog breeds vary widely in shape, size, and color. They perform many roles for humans, such as hunting, herding, pulling loads, protection, assisting police and the military, companionship, therapy, and aiding disabled people. This influence on human society has given them the sobriquet of "man's best friend." Contents 1Taxonomy 2Evolution 2.1Domestication 2.2Breeds 3Biology3.1Anatomy 3.1.1Skeleton 3.1.2Senses 3.1.3Coat 3.1.4Tail 3.2Health 3.2.1Lifespan 3.3Reproduction 3.3.1Neutering 3.4Inbreeding depression 4Behavior 4.1Intelligence 4.2Communication 5Ecology 5.1Po[CENSORED]tion 5.2Competitors and predators 5.3Diet 5.4Range 6Roles with humans 6.1Pets 6.2Workers 6.3Athletes and models 6.4Food 6.5Health risks 6.6Health benefits 6.7Cultural importance 7Terminology 8See also 9References 10Bibliography 11External links Taxonomy Further information: Canis lupus dingo § Taxonomic debate – the domestic dog, dingo, and New Guinea singing dog In 1758, the Swedish botanist and zoologist Carl Linnaeus published in his Systema Naturae, the two-word naming of species (binomial nomenclature). Canis is the Latin word meaning "dog,"[14] and under this genus, he listed the domestic dog, the grey wolf, and the golden jackal. He classified the domestic dog as Canis familiaris and, on the next page, classified the grey wolf as Canis lupus.[2] Linnaeus considered the dog to be a separate species from the wolf because of its upturning tail (cauda re[CENSORED]ta), which is not found in any other canid.[15] In 1999, a study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) indicated that the domestic dog may have originated from the grey wolf, with the dingo and New Guinea singing dog breeds having developed at a time when human communities were more isolated from each other.[16] In the third edition of Mammal Species of the World published in 2005, the mammalogist W. Christopher Wozencraft listed under the wolf Canis lupus its wild subspecies and proposed two additional subspecies, which formed the domestic dog clade: familiaris, as named by Linneaus in 1758 and, dingo named by Meyer in 1793. Wozencraft included hallstromi (the New Guinea singing dog) as another name (junior synonym) for the dingo. Wozencraft referred to the mtDNA study as one of the guides informing his decision.[3] Mammalogists have noted the inclusion of familiaris and dingo together under the "domestic dog" clade[17] with some debating it.[18] In 2019, a workshop hosted by the IUCN/Species Survival Commission's Canid Specialist Group considered the dingo and the New Guinea singing dog to be feral Canis familiaris and therefore did not assess them for the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.[4] Evolution Main article: Evolution of the wolf Location of a dog's carnassials; the inside of the 4th upper premolar aligns with the outside of the 1st lower molar, working like scissor blades The Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event occurred 65 million years ago and brought an end to the dinosaurs and the appearance of the first carnivorans.[19] The name carnivoran is given to a member of the order Carnivora. Carnivorans possess a common arrangement of teeth called carnassials, in which the first lower molar and the last upper premolar possess blade-like enamel crowns that act similar to a pair of shears for cutting meat. This dental arrangement has been modified by adaptation over the past 60 million years for diets composed of meat, for crushing vegetation, or for the loss of the carnassial function altogether as in seals, sea lions, and walruses. Today, not all carnivorans are carnivores, such as the insect-eating Aardwolf.[5] The carnivoran ancestors of the dog-like caniforms and the cat-like feliforms began their separate evolutionary paths just after the end of the dinosaurs. The first members of the dog family Canidae appeared 40 million years ago,[20] of which only its subfamily the Caninae survives today in the form of the wolf-like and fox-like canines. Within the Caninae, the first members of genus Canis appeared six million years ago,[14] the ancestors of modern domestic dogs, wolves, coyotes, and golden jackals. Domestication Main article: Origin of the domestic dog The earliest remains generally accepted to be those of a domesticated dog were discovered in Bonn-Oberkassel, Germany. Contextual, isotopic, genetic, and morphological evidence shows that this dog was not a local wolf.[21] The dog was dated to 14,223 years ago and was found buried along with a man and a woman, all three having been sprayed with red hematite powder and buried under large, thick basalt blocks. The dog had died of canine distemper.[22] Earlier remains dating back to 30,000 years ago have been described as Paleolithic dogs but their status as dogs or wolves remains debated[23] because considerable morphological diversity existed among wolves during the Late Pleistocene.[1] This timing indicates that the dog was the first species to be domesticated[9][8] in the time of hunter–gatherers,[7] which predates agriculture.[1] DNA sequences show that all ancient and modern dogs share a common ancestry and descended from an ancient, extinct wolf po[CENSORED]tion which was distinct from the modern wolf lineage.[6][7] Most dogs form a sister group to the remains of a Late Pleistocene wolf found in the Kessleroch cave near Thayngen in the canton of Schaffhausen, Switzerland, which dates to 14,500 years ago. The most recent common ancestor of both is estimated to be from 32,100 years ago.[24] This indicates that an extinct Late Pleistocene wolf may have been the ancestor of the dog,[8][1][25] with the modern wolf being the dog's nearest living relative.[8] The dog is a classic example of a domestic animal that likely travelled a commensal pathway into domestication.[23][26] The questions of when and where dogs were first domesticated have taxed geneticists and archaeologists for decades.[9] Genetic studies suggest a domestication process commencing over 25,000 years ago, in one or several wolf po[CENSORED]tions in either Europe, the high Arctic, or eastern Asia.[10] In 2021, a literature review of the current evidence infers that the dog was domesticated in Siberia 23,000 years ago by ancient North Siberians, then later dispersed eastward into the Americas and westward across Eurasia.[21] Breeds Main article: Dog breed Further information: Dog type Dog breeds show a range of phenotypic variation Dogs are the most variable mammal on earth with around 450 globally recognized dog breeds.[10] In the Victorian era, directed human selection developed the modern dog breeds, which resulted in a vast range of phenotypes.[8] Most breeds were derived from small numbers of founders within the last 200 years,[8][10] and since then dogs have undergone rapid phenotypic change and were formed into today's modern breeds due to artificial selection imposed by humans. The skull, body, and limb proportions vary significantly between breeds, with dogs displaying more phenotypic diversity than can be found within the entire order of carnivores. These breeds possess distinct traits related to morphology, which include body size, skull shape, tail phenotype, fur type and colour.[8] Their behavioural traits include guarding, herding, and hunting,[8] retrieving, and scent detection. Their personality traits include hypersocial behavior, boldness, and aggression,[10] which demonstrates the functional and behavioral diversity of dogs.[8] As a result, today dogs are the most abundant carnivore species and are dispersed around the world.[10] The most striking example of this dispersal is that of the numerous modern breeds of European lineage during the Victorian era.[7]
  11. Andrea Pirlo Ufficiale OMRI[4][5] (Italian pronunciation: [anˈdrɛːa ˈpirlo]; born 19 May 1979) is an Italian professional football coach and former player who was most recently the head coach of Serie A club Juventus. Considered one of the best deep-lying playmakers ever, Pirlo was renowned for his vision, ball control, technique, creativity, passing, and free kick ability.[6][7][8] Andrea Pirlo Pirlo with Juventus in 2014 Personal information Full nameAndrea Pirlo[1] Date of birth19 May 1979 (age 42)[2] Place of birthFlero, Italy Height1.77 m (5 ft 10 in)[3] Position(s)Midfielder Youth career 1992–1995Brescia Senior career* YearsTeamApps(Gls) 1995–1998Brescia47(6) 1998–2001Inter Milan22(0) 1999–2000→ Reggina (loan)28(6) 2001→ Brescia (loan)10(0) 2001–2011AC Milan284(32) 2011–2015Juventus119(16) 2015–2017New York City FC60(1) Total570(61) National team 1994Italy U153(0) 1995Italy U166(2) 1995Italy U174(0) 1995–1997Italy U1818(7) 1998–2002Italy U2137(15) 2000–2004Italy Olympic9(1) 2002–2015Italy116(13) Teams managed 2020Juventus U23 2020–2021Juventus Honours Men's football Representing Italy FIFA World Cup Winner
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